Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most commercially sought-after energy storages today. Their application spans from Electric Vehicle to portable devices. Their lightness and high energy density makes them commercially viable. More research is being conducted to better select the materials for the anode and cathode parts of Lithium (Li) ion cell.
Lithium-ion batteries are used in different technologies such as the Hybrid Electric Vehicles , which use both battery as well as electric motor engines to increase the fuel efficiency . A battery is essentially many electrochemical cells connected in series or parallel to provide voltage and capacity. Each cell contains a positive (cathode) and negative (anode) electrode divided by an electrolytic solution, simply called as an electrolyte, with dissociated salt that allows ion transfer between electrodes. When these electrodes are connected to an external source, electrons are released as a result of chemical reaction and therefore for current to be tapped . The electrical energy that a battery is able to give is a function of both the cell and its capacity which are dependent on the chemistry of the battery. For the purpose of application, Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) is the common battery technology currently being used.
CATHODE MATERIALS The cathode material in Li-ion battery chemistry is the major and active source of all the Li-ions. The preference of positive electrode materials depends on rechargeable Limetal or Li-ion batteries. The Li-metal, when used in rechargeable Li batteries, the metal acts as a negative electrode, therefore the positive electrode does not need to be lithiated. In the case of Li-ion, because carbon electrode which acting as the negative doesn’t have Li, the positive terminal must act as source of Li; therefore intercalation compound is required for the cell assembly.
ANODE MATERIALS Currently, the two most commonly used anode materials are those based on carbon (graphite) and lithium alloyed metals. One of the commercialized lithium alloyed metal is the oxide spinel the structure. To avoid issues in the cycling and safety which are associated with dendrite formation on lithium anodes, it is advisable to use the minimal potential intercalation electrode. The element found in the graphite intercalation alloy protects the inserted lithium, making it less reactive towards electrolytes. This will make the amount of Lithium in the lithiated material less, which comes with both advantage and disadvantage. The advantage is that it accounts for any safety concerns regarding the flammability of the electrochemical reactions.
The kilns that are predominantly used in battery production are.
Roller Hearth Kiln
Therser UK will design and build and install all the above, offering a full turnkey solution.
Saggar Handling Systems
A Conveyor directly behind the kiln outlet is also used as an extension of the cooling zone. The Saggar Handling System (SHS) .
The SHS will do
*Filling and weighting to desired amount
*Stacking the saggars
*Catching cracked saggers using sensors to prevent potential problems
*The recovery machine overturns the sagger into closed containers to collect the powder material.
*Cleaning and inspecting ready for product
*Reloading with product
The configuration of your SHS will be led by you. We will aid in the design to make it productive and fuel efficient.
A saggar is a deep ceramic box used in industrial applications to hold materials or items while they’re being fired.
The production of battery material requires the use of complex multi-metal oxide active powders. These powders are made by reacting the raw ingredients together at high temperatures, at which point the material becomes incredibly corrosive during this calcination process.
saggars can be used to contain powders, granules, and small components,
they can be used as enclosures, helping to retain the vapours of volatile ingredients as they are processed at high temperatures. Saggars can protect objects from contamination.
Therser are the UK’s largest Kiln and Furnace manufacturing company, we are also the only UK company that can offer RHK’s (Roller Hearth Kilns) and SHS’s (Saggar Handling Systems) for various industries and market sectors, including the manufacture of CAM (Cathode Active Materials) for the Lithium-Ion Battery sector which we are currently engaged in with some of our customers.
Therser UK is an established Kiln engineering specialist based in the UK and as such can provide full maintenance and servicing any other type of heat treating equipment that your company may use.
Therser UK has a wealth of experience in the following areas:
- Design and Manufacture of RHK’s, Tunnel Kilns, Rotary Kilns, Furnaces, Driers, Ovens including intermittent, shuttle/top hat, continuous and belt. Fuel gas, electric, oil and LPG.
- Turnkey manufacturing, installation, commissioning and project management services.
- In house design and manufacturing of bespoke, Automation Systems and Handling Systems to meet customer’s requirements.
- 3D modelling design capabilities and VR Interaction capabilities.
- Additive manufacturing printing for rapid prototyping.
- Kiln servicing contracts
- Kiln spare parts
- Any type of equipment relocation and or re-siting.
- Supplying instrument technicians, installation engineers and commissioning engineers.
- Therser can undertake total factory moves or individual pieces of equipment/machinery.
- Project management
- Therser (UK) are sole agents for Ferro precision temperature control rings.